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David Martin
David Martin


Race Against the TeacherChallenge your students to outrun your grasshopper! Use this example to demonstrate how your students can design nimble legs and add character to their hoppers.


HopperJavaBedrockView all rendersRenewableYesStackableYes (64) ToolBlast resistance4.8Hardness3LuminousNo TransparentYesFlammableNoCatches fire from lavaNoA hopper is a low-capacity storage block that can be used to collect item entities directly above it, as well as to transfer items into and out of other containers.

A hopper has an "output" tube at its bottom that can face down or sideways and provides a visual indication of which block the hopper is set up to drop its items into, if that block has an inventory. To place a hopper, use the Place Block control while aiming at the surface to which its output should face (Hoppers do not orient themselves automatically). To place a hopper directly on the face of an already interactable block, the player can sneak while placing the hopper. Attempting to place a hopper aimed on the bottom face of a block instead faces downward. With some blocks, such as the furnace and brewing stand, the hopper has multiple uses. A hopper does not change direction after placement, and it is not attached to the container it faces; the container can be removed or replaced, and the hopper remains unchanged.

To open the hopper GUI, use the Use Item/Place Block control. To move items between the hopper inventory and the player inventory or hotbar while the hopper GUI is open, drag or shift-click the items. To exit the hopper GUI, use the Esc key, B button or circle button, depending on the device.

By default, the GUI of a hopper is labeled "Item Hopper". A hopper's GUI label can be changed by naming the hopper in an anvil before placing it, or, in Java Edition, by using the data command (for example, to label a hopper at (0,64,0) "Steve's Hopper", use /data merge block 0 64 0 CustomName:'"Steve's Hopper"').

In Java Edition, a hopper's GUI can be "locked" (or subsequently unlocked) by setting the hopper's Lock tag with the data command. If a hopper's Lock tag is not blank, the hopper cannot be accessed except by players holding an item with the same name as the Lock tag's text. For example, to lock a hopper at (0,64,0) so that only players holding an item named "Steve's Key" can access the hopper, use /data merge block 0 64 0 Lock:"Steve's Key".

A hopper first attempts to push any items inside it. Afterward, it checks if the block above it is a type of container. If so, it attempts to pull from it. Otherwise, the hopper attempts to collect item entities. Notably, hoppers can push to and pull from other hoppers, forming hopper pipes or hopper chains, which allow transporting items across several blocks and are further discussed below.

When a hopper receives a redstone signal (and is considered to be "activated"), all three functions stop. To avoid confusion over the terms "activated" and "deactivated", powered hoppers are often described as being locked and unpowered hoppers described as being unlocked. Hoppers can be powered by soft powered blocks, meaning a redstone dust trail pointing into a block touching the hopper locks it just as effectively as a redstone block or any other power component touching the hopper. When the hopper is unlocked during a redstone tick, it does not push or pull/collect during the same tick, but has a delay of 1 redstone tick instead.

While a locked hopper does not push or pull/collect items, it may still receive items from dispensers, droppers and other hoppers, and may have its items pulled out by another hopper beneath it. Hence, the item flow in a horizontal hopper pipe may be stopped by locking just one of the hoppers, but stopping a vertical hopper pipe requires locking two adjacent hoppers at the same time, such that both the pushing of the top one and the pulling of the bottom one are stopped.

A hopper does not output any redstone signals by itself, but its fullness can be read using a redstone comparator, which needs to be placed next to it and facing away from it. An empty hopper outputs a signal strength of 0 and a completely full hopper outputs a signal strength of 15. Notably, a single stackable item (16 or 64) outputs a signal strength of 1 and a single non-stackable item outputs a signal strength of 3.

In Java Edition, if the hopper being read is part of a horizontal hopper pipe, the comparator can individually read each item passing through the chain, because items are pushed through the hoppers one by one at a speed that is manageable by the comparator. If there is an uninterrupted stream of items, the comparator does not switch off in between items. On the other hand, in a vertical hopper pipe, some of the hoppers may never produce a reading above 0, even with a continuous stream of items, because pushes and pulls both occur in the same game tick: The hoppers' items get pulled out a single game tick after they're pushed in and this isn't measurable by a comparator, because comparators need measurements lasting at least 1.5 redstone ticks to produce a reading.

A hopper collects items dropped on top of it if the space above the hopper not occupied by a storage block. Items are gathered from the entire 1 block space above the hopper, meaning that items sitting on partial blocks such as soul sand directly above a hopper can be collected.[1] (Moreover, soul sand is a full block in Bedrock Edition.[2]) It is also possible for a hopper to collect items from inside a full, solid block, a situation that might come from items rising up through solid blocks or being summoned. Item entities are not collected when they are outside of the collection area however; for example, items on top of a stone block directly above a hopper are not collected. Collected items are placed in the leftmost empty slot of a hopper's inventory.

In Java Edition, if there is no container above the hopper, then the hopper collects dropped items in the order in which they landed on the hopper. This order is remembered even while a hopper is locked. For instance, if a hopper is locked under a carpet while a fully equipped armor stand is broken above it, then it always collects items in this order when it is unlocked: armor stand, boots, leggings, chestplates, helmets. This is due to the order in which these items land.[verify] In Bedrock Edition, hoppers do not remember the order in which items land on the hopper. Instead, hoppers with multiple dropped items above them collect the items in the order in which they entered the chunk in which the hopper is located. Items that drop from a broken armor stand are collected in a random order.[3]

Hoppers usually check for dropped items every game tick and they can collect items even before they are picked up by a player[verify] or destroyed by lava. However, in Bedrock Edition hoppers have a "collection cooldown" time. After collecting an item (or stack of items), a hopper waits 4 redstone ticks (0.4 seconds, barring lag) before attempting to collect again.

Hoppers collect groups of items all at once rather than collecting them as single items one at a time. As a result, hoppers can collect item entities much faster than they can pull items from a container. Pulling from a moving minecart with chest or minecart with hopper is even slower, since the minecart is not always above the hopper.

A hopper with a storage container above it (such as a furnace, chest, dropper, composter, or another hopper) attempts to pull from the container instead of checking for floating items above it, and hence can not collect items. A hopper always tries to push or pull items using the leftmost available slot. When a hopper is removing items from a chest, the items disappear from left to right. Similarly, when filling up a chest, the chest fills up from left to right. Hoppers prioritize pulling from the first slot of a container over pulling into the first hopper slot. If a hopper has stone in its first slot and nothing in its second while the container it is pulling from has chicken in its first slot but stone in the second, the hopper pulls the chicken from the first slot of the container into its empty second slot. However, if the hopper is unable to pull the chicken, such as if all slots are filled with stone, the hopper pulls the stone from the second slot of the container instead. Similarly, hoppers prioritize pushing from their first slot over pushing into the first slot of a container. If a hopper has stone in its first slot and chicken in its second while the container it is pushing to has chicken it its first slot but stone in the second, the hopper pushes stone from its first slot into the second slot of the container.

In Java Edition the checks done by a hopper while pulling generally require less processing than the checks done by a hopper attempting collection. Therefore, a chain of hoppers topped with storage containers rather than air/solid blocks has better performance (measured as milliseconds of processing per tick) and lower potential for processing lag. [4] The performance improvement achieved is correlated with the number of storage slots the container has. Placing composters (with no storage slots but still with custom output logic) on top of hoppers provide the greatest efficiency, while double chests actually degrade performance, even when sharing each double chest across two hoppers.[4] In Bedrock Edition a chain of hoppers with air or non-container blocks on top has better performance than a chain of hoppers topped by container blocks.[5] This may be because, even though hoppers with containers on top do not check for items, they do check for hopper-minecarts and chest-minecarts to pull from, and that involves scanning the chunk entity list.[6]

Item pushes and pulls are processed in the same game tick, but pushes are processed before pulls. In the schematic, the empty hopper first pulls an item from chest A as it cannot push anything into chest B. After the cooldown, the hopper first pushes its item into chest B before pulling another item from chest A, both pushing and pulling in the same tick, and the process repeats. The hopper stops pulling when A is empty, and stops pushing when B becomes full. 041b061a72


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